Special Thanks


  • Barnard College
  • Center for East Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania
  • Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia
  • Keisen Jogakuen
  • Tsuda University
  • United States – Japan Conference on Cultural and Educational Interchange (CULCON)
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Archives
  • Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University


Research Contributors

  • Xiaoke Yang
  • Azat Bilalutdinov


The Digital Museum of the History of Japanese in New York wishes to express special gratitude to the editors and contributors behind Friendly Connections: Philadelphia Quakers and Japan since the Late Nineteenth Century (forthcoming from Rowman and Littlefield) for inspiring this project and aiding in its completion.


Bix, Herbert P. “Inventing the ‘Symbol Monarchy’ in Japan, 1945-52.” Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 21, No.2 (2022): 319-363. 

Borton, Hugh. American Presurrender Planning for Postwar Japan. New York: East Asian Institute, Columbia University, 1967. 

Borton, Hugh. Japan since 1931, Its Political and Social Developments. New York: Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1940. https://digital-research-books-beta.nypl.org/read/3168433?source=catalog.

Borton, Hugh. Japan’s Modern Century: From Perry to 1970. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1970. https://archive.org/details/japansmoderncent00bort

Borton, Hugh. Spanning Japan’s Modern Century : The Memoirs of Hugh Borton. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002. 

Gesling, Linda. Mirror and Beacon: The History of The Methodist Church, 1939-1968. New York: General Board of Global Ministries, The United Methodist Church, 2005. 

Harrington, Ann M. “Women and Higher Education in the Japanese Empire (1895-1945).” Journal of Asian History 21, no. 2 (1987); 169-186. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41930686.

Japan through the Eyes of Lewis L. Clarke, Darwin P. Kingsley, Thomas W. Lamont, Jacob G. Schurman, Frank Vanderlip. New York: Japan Society of New York, 1920.  https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=osu.32435009882580&view=1up&seq=1.

Johnson, Linda L. “Plum Blossom Fetes and Japanese Lantern Balls: Narcissa Cox Vanderlip and 1920s US-Japan Cultural Exchange,” New York History, Vol. 99, No.3/4 (Summer/Fall 2018): 409-439. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26908713#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Kawai, Michi. Japanese Women Speak. 1934. Accessed March 9, 2023. https://open.bu.edu/ds2/stream/?#/documents/1977/page/13.

Kawai, Michi. My Lantern. Ginza, Tokyo: Kyo Bun Kwan, 1939. https://archive.org/details/mylantern0000kawa/page/n5/mode/2up.

Koikari, Mire. “Feminism and the Cold War in the U.S. Occupation of Japan, 1945 – 1952;  米軍占領下の日本におけるフェミニズムと冷戦、1945−1952年.” The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 9, Iss. 7, No. 1 (February 14, 2011). https://apjjf.org/2011/9/7/Mire-Koikari/3487/article.html.

Lin, Kevin. “Disarming the Nation, Disarming the Mind: Exploitation of the American Progressive Education Movement in Japan’s Postwar Education Reform, 1946-1950.” Senior thesis, Yale University, May 2019. educationstudies.yale.edu.

“Tsuda Fund $200,000; Jubilee Dinner Held: Laura Spelman Rockefeller Foundation Gives $100,000 for College Rebuilding.” The New York Times, January 29, 1926. https://nyti.ms/403120S.

Nitobe, Inazo. Lectures on Japan: An Outline of the Development of the Japanese People and their Culture. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1936. archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.114659/page/n303/mode/2up.

Nitobe, Inazo. The Japanese Nation: Its Land, Its People, and Its Life. New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912. internet archive (archive.org).

Ogawa, Manako. “The Establishment of the Women’s and Minors’ Bureau in Japan.” U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal, No. 13 (1997): 56-86. https://www.jstor.org/stable/42772117#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Pamonag, Febe. “‘A Bryn Mawr School in the East’: Transpacific Initiatives for Japanese Women’s Higher Education.” Pacific Historical Review 81, no. 4 (November 1, 2012): 537–66. https://doi.org/10.1525/phr.2012.81.4.537.

Pamonag, Febe D. “Turn-of-the-Century Cross-Cultural Collaborations for Japanese Women’s Higher Education,” U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal (2009): 33-56.

“Report of the United States Education Mission to Japan: Submitted to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Tokyo, March 30, 1946.” Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1946.

Romano, Camille and Shrusti Goswami. “Rutgers Meets Japan – Meiji Development – Modernization of Education.” https://sites.rutgers.edu/rutgers-meets-japan/our-exhibition/meiji-development-modernization-of-education/

Sharpless, Edith F. Quakerism in Japan : A Brief Account of the Origins and Development of the Religious Society of Friends in Japan.  Pennsylvania: Friends World Committee for Consultation, 1944. Accessed March 9, 2023. http://archive.org/details/quakerisminjapan00shar.

Takemae, Eiji. Inside GHQ: The Allied Occupation of Japan and Its Legacy. Translated by Sebastian Swann. New York: Continuum, 2002.  archive.org/details/insideghqalliedo00.

Takeuchi, Michiko. “At the Crossroads of Equality versus Protection: American Occupationnaire Women and Socialist Feminism in US Occupied Japan, 1945–1952.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies Vol. 38, No. 2, ERA (2017): 114-147. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5250/fronjwomestud.38.2.0114#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Yoneyama, Lisa. “Liberation under Siege: U.S. Military Occupation and Japanese Women’s Enfranchisement.” American Quarterly 57, No. 3, Legal Borderlands: Law and the Construction of American Borders, (September 2005): 885-910. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40068320#metadata_info_tab_contents.

Yoneoka, Judy. “Janes’ Girls: The First Coed Students in Japan? ジェーンズ・ガールズ~「日本初の男女教育」への疑問~” Kumamoto Gakuen University Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences 19, No. 2 (June 30, 2013): 213-239.  core.ac.uk.

“津田塾の歴史.” https://www.tsuda.ac.jp/aboutus/history/